Infant mortality, child care and development to reduce child mortality rates in poor communities.
The risk of infant death is highest in the modern period of birth, the first 28 days of their lives. Safe delivery and effective neonatal care are needed to prevent these deaths. About 44% of all under-five deaths occur during the recent birth.
Most neonatal deaths occur from premature birth, asphyxia at birth and various infections. Pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, measles, AIDS and HIV infection are the main causes of death after the end of the new birth and for the first five months of life. Malnutrition is one of the underlying factors contributing to nearly 45% of all child deaths, making children more vulnerable to severe diseases.
Overall, significant progress has been made in achieving MDG 4. Since 1990, the global under-five mortality rate has fallen from 90 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 46 deaths in 2013. However, this reduction in child mortality is still insufficient to reach the Millennium Development Goal target of To reduce the mortality rate by two-thirds by 2015 compared to 1990 levels.
Who are the most at risk?
About three million babies die each year in the first month of life and a similar number die at birth. In the first month of life, a quarter to half of all deaths occur in the first 24 hours and 75% occur in the first week. The first week after birth is the most important period for birth survival. During this week, the health of mothers and their children needs to be monitored in order to prevent and treat diseases.
Before birth, a mother can increase her child’s chances of survival and good health by consulting antenatal specialists and taking advantage of tetanus immunization, avoiding smoking and alcohol abuse.
During childbirth, a child’s chances of survival are high when the birth is assisted by a skilled midwife. After birth, basic care services for newborn infants should include:
Ensure that the infant is able to breathe; immediately start breastfeeding and feed only; keep it warm; and wash hands before touching.
Detection and treatment of neonatal diseases are also important. An infant can become severely ill and die quickly if he or she does not recognize the disease and is not given proper treatment. Sick babies must be taken immediately to a trained health care provider.
Children under five:
Under-five mortality is steadily concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, although in the rest of the world the proportion of deaths has declined from 32% in 1990 to 18% in 2013.
Children in sub-Saharan Africa are 15 times more likely to die before the age of five than in developed countries, with almost half of these deaths being in the following five countries: China, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. India (21%) and Nigeria (13%) together account for more than a third of all under-five deaths.
Children are at increased risk of dying before the age of five if they are born in rural areas, in poor families, or from a mother without basic education.
More than half of all under-five deaths are due to preventable and treatable diseases through simple and affordable interventions. Strengthening health systems to deliver such interventions to all children saves the lives of many young people.
Malnourished children – especially those with severe acute malnutrition – face a higher risk of death if they develop common childhood illnesses such as diarrhea, pneumonia and malaria. Nutrition-related factors contribute to about 45% of under-five mortality.
Vaccines are available to protect children from illness and death from some of the deadliest diseases, such as measles, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, pneumonia caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumonia, and rotavirus diarrhea .
In June 2014, WHO and UNICEF released the first-ever global plan to end preventable neonatal mortality and stillbirths by 2035. The Plan of Action calls on all newborns to take steps to provide basic and cost-effective health services – especially in Time of birth, as well as for young infants and patients – and to improve the quality of care.
Major causes of child death: risk factors and response methods
Pneumonia or other acute respiratory infections
Underweight at birth
Underweight at birth
Children who do not feed their mothers’ milk
Provision of appropriate care by a trained health service provider
Provide oxygen to treat severe diseases
Source A recent WHO study on September 19, 2019.
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