Egypt

The architecture of Ancient Egypt – a country of two parts, Upper and Lower
Egypt – reflected two fundamental
characteristics of Egyptian culture. First,
the belief that life on earth was merely a
brief interlude compared with the eternal
afterlife to come. Second, the fact that
Egypt was a theocracy, whose King (or
Pharaoh) was worshipped as a God, with
absolute powers: a ruler who owned a
large chunk of Egypt’s land and much of
its resources. As a result of these two factors, a huge proportion of Egyptian
architectural designs, building materials and labour force were devoted to the
construction of huge Pharaonic tomb complexes, known as Pyramids, designed to
preserve the Pharaoh’s body and protect his belongings after death, so as to facilitate
his passage into the after-life. A nationwide industry of Egyptian architects, master
craftsmen, painters and sculptors toiled to produce the funerary artworks, jewellery
and other artifacts required. In addition to building tombs, Egyptian architects strove
(as instructed by the Pharaoh) to glorify the Gods by constructing temples in their
honour, and to promote and preserve the values of the

day. In this context, note
that all forms of Egyptian
art, such as architecture,
painting, metalwork,
ceramics and Egyptian
sculpture – were regulated
by a highly conservative
set of traditional rules
and conventions, which
favoured order and form
over artistic expression.

Architectural Characteristics and Materials:
In general, Egyptian architectural designs were
monumental but not architecturally complex: they used
posts and lintels, not arches, although Egyptian stone
masons had a strong influence on later Greek sculpture
and architecture. The lack of wood was balanced by an
abundance of sun-baked mud bricks, and stone (mostly
limestone, but also granite and sandstone), although most
major structures had to be built near the Nile, as building materials were transported by
river. Stone was first introduced during the era of the Old Kingdom (2686-2181), initially
only for tombs and temples, and architectural sculpture. Bricks were used for everything
else, including royal palaces, fortified buildings, temple walls and outbuildings, as
well as municipal and other civic complexes.
Most famous Egyptian architecture was
completed during two periods: the Old
Kingdom (2686-2181) (mostly pyramids) and
the New Kingdom (1550-1069) (mostly
temples). See also: Architecture Glossary.

Columns:
When we think of Egyptian temples, one of the principle
architectural elements that comes to mind is the column. In fact,
it is difficult to imagine a temple such as Karnak without
thinking of its columned halls, and what many visitors will take
away with them is visions of pylons, obelisks, statues and
columns. Column shafts were often decorated with colorful
depictions in painted, carved relief, and remain some of the
most interesting architectural elements in Egyptian structures.

Types of columns:
1: Fluted Column: This early form of column first appears in the
Step Pyramid enclosure of Djoser, but the form mostly died
out by the New Kingdom. However, their use continued in
Nubia. These columns resembled and represented bundled
reeds or plant stems, but during later periods, sometimes took
the form of a polygonal column shaft.

2: Palmiform Columns: The Palmiform Columns were also one
of the earliest styles of columns in Egyptian temple architecture.
Examples of this type of column were found, for example, in the
5th Dynasty pyramid mortuary complex of Unas. However, after
the 5th Dynasty, these types of columns are rare, but continued to
occasionally be used. Mostly we find examples during later
periods at the Taharga temple in Kawa in Upper Nubia, and in
some temples dating to the Graeco-Roman Period. However,
they may also be found in the Ramesseum. There, at the inner
side of the court, are two rows of ten columns. The four middle
columns in each row are Papyriform columns while the others
are Palmiform. These columns obviously had a palm tree motif,
but did not actually represent the tree itself, but rather eight palm
fronds lashed to a pole.

3: Papyriform Columns: There are several variations in this
type of column.
Some have circular shafts representing a single plant, while others
have ribbed shafts that represent a plant with multiple stems. The

capitals could be closed (buds) or open in a wide, bell-shaped form.
During the New Kingdom, the shafts of most papyriform columns
taper upwards from bases decorated with triangular patterns
representing stylized stem sheaths. The earliest examples we know
of the circular shaft style columns can be found in Djoser’s Step
Pyramid enclosure at Saqqara. However, these are not free standing
columns, but incorporated into other structures. Though the circular
shaft form of the column seems to have been used throughout
Egyptian history, they saw widespread use during the New
Kingdom, along with both open and closed capital styles.

4: Coniform Columns : This column style apparently quickly died out after
their use in Djoser’s Step Pyramid enclosure wall. It has not been found in
later temples. The style is characterized by a fluted shaft surmounted by a
capital representing the branches of a conifer tree.

5: Tent Pole Columns : Though we probably know of other
applications of this style from documentation, apparently the
only
surviving, known examples are found in the Festival Temple of
Tuthmosis III at Karnak. It is possible that very early examples of the
style were also constructed of brick. There is little doubt that this
type of column made of stone was rare. The column is basically a
representation in stone of the wooden “poles” used to support light

structures such as tents, and sometimes shrines, kiosks or ships cabins. Why this
tent pole design was used is perhaps somewhat of a mystery, though they certainly
reflect back on the earliest of Egypt’s structures and their wood counterparts. It is
sometimes believed that the specific columns in Tuthmosis III temple were
modeled after actual wooden poles of his military tent.
6: Hathoric Columns: This type of column never appeared
prior to the Middle Kingdom, and probably originated in that
period. They are usually instantly recognizable by their
capital in the shape of the cow-headed goddess, Hathor. They
often had a simple, round shaft. All considered, they were
fairly common, and examples may be
found in the Temple of Nefertari at Abu Simbel and within the
hypostyle hall of the Ptolemaic (Greek) temple at Dendera. The

Dendera columns are probably the best known, where all twenty-
four columns have the head of this goddess on all four sides. We

also know of several other temples with Hathor columns, including
the temple of Nekhebet at el Kab. Sistrum columns are also
associated with Hathor, but represent in the capitals and shafts the
handles and rattles of the sistrum.
Reliefs:
For Egyptians the decoration of tomb
walls with reliefs or painted scenes
provided some certainty of the
perpetuation of life; in a temple,
similarly, it was believed that mural
decoration magically ensured the
performance of important ceremonies
and reinforced the memory of royal
deeds.The earliest appearance of
mural decoration is to be found in

tomb 100 at Hierakonpolis, presumably the
grave of a powerful local chieftain; it is dated
to the early Gerzean (Naqādah II) period.
Although technically they are considered
small objects, the large ceremonial palettes
that appear around the beginning of the
dynastic period represent the earliest
religious relief sculptures, which would

eventually find their place on the walls of temples built in stone, after the
appearance of that medium.The beginnings of the dynastic tradition can be found
in tombs of the 3rd dynasty, such as that of Hesire at S Ṣaqqārah; it contained mural
paintings of funerary equipment and wooden panels carrying figures of Hesire in
the finest low relief. Generally speaking, mural decorations were in paint when the
ground was mud brick or stone of poor quality and in relief when the walls were in
good stone. Painting and drawing formed the basis of what was to be carved in
relief, and the finished carving was itself commonly painted.
Important buildings:
1. The Great Pyramid of Giza: One of the seven wonders of the world, the
Great Pyramid of Giza is the largest of all the surviving pyramids in Egypt.
Constructed from 2580 to 2560 BC (fourth dynasty), the pyramid has no
documented evidence of its construction but there are many
theories that could throw light on its
history. Archaeologists believe that
the pyramid was built over a tomb
dedicated to a pharaoh of the fourth
dynasty named Khufu and his family.
The materials used for the
construction of the pyramid were
granite and limestone. Initially, it was
146. 7 meters tall but with
weather conditions and erosion,
it has now been reduced to
138.8 meters, and stretches 230
meters in length. The
pyramid has three chambers, the King’s Room, the Queen’s Room, and a large
passageway known as the Great Gallery. Around the pyramid, there are three
smaller pyramids that are believed to have been built for Khufu’s wife. The great
pyramid has been built from heavy stone blocks that are stacked repetitively all the
way up to its head. It was built by the royal architect Hemiunu and skilled workers
were used in its construction instead of slaves. It is believed to have taken 20 years
to complete.

 

2. The Great Sphinx of Giza :The Great Sphinx of Giza is a statue of the
mythical creature known as the sphinx. In
Egyptian mythology, the sphinx was a
creature with the body of a lion and the
head of a human. Archaeologists
believe that it was created around 2500
BC and represents the pharaoh Khafre
of the fourth dynasty’s Old Kingdom.
The Great Sphinx is a monolith which
was modelled in the shape of a lion at
the back from various layers extending
to its tail and with a human face
believed to be that of Pharaoh Khafre.
It is a gigantic structure that is 240 feet
(73 meters) long, 65 feet (20 meters)
high and six meters wide. The facial features of the structure alone are each three
feet (1 meter) tall and are carved out of bedrock. The mythical sphinx has great
prominence in the history of Egypt and is believed to be the source of the food
cycle making it one of the most ancient and revered structures in Egyptian history.
It is also believed that the structure was created to guard the great pyramids, but it
has eroded over time.
3. The Karnak Temple: The Karnak Temple was built over a period of 3,000
years. Over 30 different kings contributed to the construction of this temple.
Its construction was initiated in the Middle Kingdom under the reign of
Pharaoh Senusret I and was not completed until the emergence of the New
Kingdom. The temple is dedicated to the Theban tribe
with the god Amun as its head. The
Karnak Temple is a part of a vast Karnak
complex which is divided into four major
parts: the precinct of Amun-Ra, which is
open to the public, and three other parts,
the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of
Montu, and Temple of Amenhotep IV
which are private. The walls of the temple
have large hieroglyphics and structures
carved into them that attract a large
number of tourists.

4. Abu Simbel Temples: The Abu Simbel temples are two temples in Abu
Simbel carved out of massive sold rocks.
Situated on the banks of Lake Nasser,
the temples were built under the reign
of Pharaoh Ramesses II of the 19th
dynasty in the 13th century BC. The
exterior part of the temple has four
humungous 20-meter statues of
Ramesses crowned and seated on a
throne. The interiors of the temples
have various colossal statues lined up
and decreasing in size with the rooms
from the entrance to the sanctuary. A few carvings of baboons and people
worshipping can also be found around the entrance to the temple. The temple is
said to be have been dedicated by the king to himself and his queen Nefertari. One
of the four statues of Pharaoh Ramesses II has been damaged by natural erosion
and weather conditions over the years.
5. Luxor Temple: Situated
near the river Nile, the Luxor
Temple is a large temple
complex. The temple was built
around 1400 BC and was
dedicated to the god Amun
and for the “rejuvenation of
kingship” as many of the
Egyptian kings were crowned
there. The temple was built
from sandstone and was supposedly constructed under the kingship of various
rulers throughout the years. The Luxor Temple is widely known for its large statues
of Pharaoh Ramesses and other giant obelisks. Initially, there were two obelisks
made out of graphite of the same height and shape, though currently only one is
present at the Luxor temple; the other is in Paris and is called the Luxor Obelisk.

6. Temple of Hatshepsut: The
Temple of Hatshepsut, also
known as Djeser-Djeseru, is
situated in Deir el-Bahari on
the banks of the river Nile. The
temple was built around 1400
BC, under the reign of Pharaoh
Maatkare Hatshepsut and is
dedicated to Amun and
Hatshepsut. This is a mortuary
temple, a temple dedicated to
the reigning pharaoh and to
also honor him in the afterlife.
The
Temple of Hatshepsut is one of a kind as it was built by a female pharaoh as can be
seen from sculptures present inside the temple. This example of Egyptian
architecture is unconventional in its construction and representation of the
pharaohs.
7. Pyramid of Djoser :The Pyramid of Djoser is a step pyramid made of large
blocks of limestone in the Saqqara
necropolis of Egypt. It is the tomb of
Pharaoh Djoser and was constructed by
his chancellor Imhotep in the 27th century
BC. It has a height of 62.5 meters and is
built in a way that is not exactly a grave
for the king but to facilitate his successful
afterlife in order for him to be reborn.
Inside the pyramid there are long, tunneled chambers spreading a total length of six
kilometers. The tomb was not just for the pharaohs, it also was a place to bury
members of the royal family. The burial chambers are made up of granite and were
once filled with precious jewels which have long since been looted.

References:
http://www.legendsandchronicles.com/ancient-civilizations/ancient-egypt/ancient-egyptian-pyramids/
http://bibliotecapleyades.lege.net/piramides/esp_piramide_12.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_pyramid_construction_techniques
https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/ancient-egypt#section_3
https://www.ancient.eu/Great_Pyramid_of_Giza/
https://www.google.com/search?q=%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%87%D9%86%D8%AF
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Top 10 Most Iconic Pieces of Architecture in Ancient Egypt


https://www.britannica.com/art/Egyptian-art/Relief-sculpture-and-painting

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Ruqaya Amer

Project Foundation

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Egypt

The architecture of Ancient Egypt – a country of two parts, Upper and Lower
Egypt – reflected two fundamental
characteristics of Egyptian culture. First,
the belief that life on earth was merely a
brief interlude compared with the eternal
afterlife to come. Second, the fact that
Egypt was a theocracy, whose King (or
Pharaoh) was worshipped as a God, with
absolute powers: a ruler who owned a
large chunk of Egypt’s land and much of
its resources. As a result of these two factors, a huge proportion of Egyptian
architectural designs, building materials and labour force were devoted to the
construction of huge Pharaonic tomb complexes, known as Pyramids, designed to
preserve the Pharaoh’s body and protect his belongings after death, so as to facilitate
his passage into the after-life. A nationwide industry of Egyptian architects, master
craftsmen, painters and sculptors toiled to produce the funerary artworks, jewellery
and other artifacts required. In addition to building tombs, Egyptian architects strove
(as instructed by the Pharaoh) to glorify the Gods by constructing temples in their
honour, and to promote and preserve the values of the

day. In this context, note
that all forms of Egyptian
art, such as architecture,
painting, metalwork,
ceramics and Egyptian
sculpture – were regulated
by a highly conservative
set of traditional rules
and conventions, which
favoured order and form
over artistic expression.

Architectural Characteristics and Materials:
In general, Egyptian architectural designs were
monumental but not architecturally complex: they used
posts and lintels, not arches, although Egyptian stone
masons had a strong influence on later Greek sculpture
and architecture. The lack of wood was balanced by an
abundance of sun-baked mud bricks, and stone (mostly
limestone, but also granite and sandstone), although most
major structures had to be built near the Nile, as building materials were transported by
river. Stone was first introduced during the era of the Old Kingdom (2686-2181), initially
only for tombs and temples, and architectural sculpture. Bricks were used for everything
else, including royal palaces, fortified buildings, temple walls and outbuildings, as
well as municipal and other civic complexes.
Most famous Egyptian architecture was
completed during two periods: the Old
Kingdom (2686-2181) (mostly pyramids) and
the New Kingdom (1550-1069) (mostly
temples). See also: Architecture Glossary.

Columns:
When we think of Egyptian temples, one of the principle
architectural elements that comes to mind is the column. In fact,
it is difficult to imagine a temple such as Karnak without
thinking of its columned halls, and what many visitors will take
away with them is visions of pylons, obelisks, statues and
columns. Column shafts were often decorated with colorful
depictions in painted, carved relief, and remain some of the
most interesting architectural elements in Egyptian structures.

Types of columns:
1: Fluted Column: This early form of column first appears in the
Step Pyramid enclosure of Djoser, but the form mostly died
out by the New Kingdom. However, their use continued in
Nubia. These columns resembled and represented bundled
reeds or plant stems, but during later periods, sometimes took
the form of a polygonal column shaft.

2: Palmiform Columns: The Palmiform Columns were also one
of the earliest styles of columns in Egyptian temple architecture.
Examples of this type of column were found, for example, in the
5th Dynasty pyramid mortuary complex of Unas. However, after
the 5th Dynasty, these types of columns are rare, but continued to
occasionally be used. Mostly we find examples during later
periods at the Taharga temple in Kawa in Upper Nubia, and in
some temples dating to the Graeco-Roman Period. However,
they may also be found in the Ramesseum. There, at the inner
side of the court, are two rows of ten columns. The four middle
columns in each row are Papyriform columns while the others
are Palmiform. These columns obviously had a palm tree motif,
but did not actually represent the tree itself, but rather eight palm
fronds lashed to a pole.

3: Papyriform Columns: There are several variations in this
type of column.
Some have circular shafts representing a single plant, while others
have ribbed shafts that represent a plant with multiple stems. The

capitals could be closed (buds) or open in a wide, bell-shaped form.
During the New Kingdom, the shafts of most papyriform columns
taper upwards from bases decorated with triangular patterns
representing stylized stem sheaths. The earliest examples we know
of the circular shaft style columns can be found in Djoser’s Step
Pyramid enclosure at Saqqara. However, these are not free standing
columns, but incorporated into other structures. Though the circular
shaft form of the column seems to have been used throughout
Egyptian history, they saw widespread use during the New
Kingdom, along with both open and closed capital styles.

4: Coniform Columns : This column style apparently quickly died out after
their use in Djoser’s Step Pyramid enclosure wall. It has not been found in
later temples. The style is characterized by a fluted shaft surmounted by a
capital representing the branches of a conifer tree.

5: Tent Pole Columns : Though we probably know of other
applications of this style from documentation, apparently the
only
surviving, known examples are found in the Festival Temple of
Tuthmosis III at Karnak. It is possible that very early examples of the
style were also constructed of brick. There is little doubt that this
type of column made of stone was rare. The column is basically a
representation in stone of the wooden “poles” used to support light

structures such as tents, and sometimes shrines, kiosks or ships cabins. Why this
tent pole design was used is perhaps somewhat of a mystery, though they certainly
reflect back on the earliest of Egypt’s structures and their wood counterparts. It is
sometimes believed that the specific columns in Tuthmosis III temple were
modeled after actual wooden poles of his military tent.
6: Hathoric Columns: This type of column never appeared
prior to the Middle Kingdom, and probably originated in that
period. They are usually instantly recognizable by their
capital in the shape of the cow-headed goddess, Hathor. They
often had a simple, round shaft. All considered, they were
fairly common, and examples may be
found in the Temple of Nefertari at Abu Simbel and within the
hypostyle hall of the Ptolemaic (Greek) temple at Dendera. The

Dendera columns are probably the best known, where all twenty-
four columns have the head of this goddess on all four sides. We

also know of several other temples with Hathor columns, including
the temple of Nekhebet at el Kab. Sistrum columns are also
associated with Hathor, but represent in the capitals and shafts the
handles and rattles of the sistrum.
Reliefs:
For Egyptians the decoration of tomb
walls with reliefs or painted scenes
provided some certainty of the
perpetuation of life; in a temple,
similarly, it was believed that mural
decoration magically ensured the
performance of important ceremonies
and reinforced the memory of royal
deeds.The earliest appearance of
mural decoration is to be found in

tomb 100 at Hierakonpolis, presumably the
grave of a powerful local chieftain; it is dated
to the early Gerzean (Naqādah II) period.
Although technically they are considered
small objects, the large ceremonial palettes
that appear around the beginning of the
dynastic period represent the earliest
religious relief sculptures, which would

eventually find their place on the walls of temples built in stone, after the
appearance of that medium.The beginnings of the dynastic tradition can be found
in tombs of the 3rd dynasty, such as that of Hesire at S Ṣaqqārah; it contained mural
paintings of funerary equipment and wooden panels carrying figures of Hesire in
the finest low relief. Generally speaking, mural decorations were in paint when the
ground was mud brick or stone of poor quality and in relief when the walls were in
good stone. Painting and drawing formed the basis of what was to be carved in
relief, and the finished carving was itself commonly painted.
Important buildings:
1. The Great Pyramid of Giza: One of the seven wonders of the world, the
Great Pyramid of Giza is the largest of all the surviving pyramids in Egypt.
Constructed from 2580 to 2560 BC (fourth dynasty), the pyramid has no
documented evidence of its construction but there are many
theories that could throw light on its
history. Archaeologists believe that
the pyramid was built over a tomb
dedicated to a pharaoh of the fourth
dynasty named Khufu and his family.
The materials used for the
construction of the pyramid were
granite and limestone. Initially, it was
146. 7 meters tall but with
weather conditions and erosion,
it has now been reduced to
138.8 meters, and stretches 230
meters in length. The
pyramid has three chambers, the King’s Room, the Queen’s Room, and a large
passageway known as the Great Gallery. Around the pyramid, there are three
smaller pyramids that are believed to have been built for Khufu’s wife. The great
pyramid has been built from heavy stone blocks that are stacked repetitively all the
way up to its head. It was built by the royal architect Hemiunu and skilled workers
were used in its construction instead of slaves. It is believed to have taken 20 years
to complete.

 

2. The Great Sphinx of Giza :The Great Sphinx of Giza is a statue of the
mythical creature known as the sphinx. In
Egyptian mythology, the sphinx was a
creature with the body of a lion and the
head of a human. Archaeologists
believe that it was created around 2500
BC and represents the pharaoh Khafre
of the fourth dynasty’s Old Kingdom.
The Great Sphinx is a monolith which
was modelled in the shape of a lion at
the back from various layers extending
to its tail and with a human face
believed to be that of Pharaoh Khafre.
It is a gigantic structure that is 240 feet
(73 meters) long, 65 feet (20 meters)
high and six meters wide. The facial features of the structure alone are each three
feet (1 meter) tall and are carved out of bedrock. The mythical sphinx has great
prominence in the history of Egypt and is believed to be the source of the food
cycle making it one of the most ancient and revered structures in Egyptian history.
It is also believed that the structure was created to guard the great pyramids, but it
has eroded over time.
3. The Karnak Temple: The Karnak Temple was built over a period of 3,000
years. Over 30 different kings contributed to the construction of this temple.
Its construction was initiated in the Middle Kingdom under the reign of
Pharaoh Senusret I and was not completed until the emergence of the New
Kingdom. The temple is dedicated to the Theban tribe
with the god Amun as its head. The
Karnak Temple is a part of a vast Karnak
complex which is divided into four major
parts: the precinct of Amun-Ra, which is
open to the public, and three other parts,
the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of
Montu, and Temple of Amenhotep IV
which are private. The walls of the temple
have large hieroglyphics and structures
carved into them that attract a large
number of tourists.

4. Abu Simbel Temples: The Abu Simbel temples are two temples in Abu
Simbel carved out of massive sold rocks.
Situated on the banks of Lake Nasser,
the temples were built under the reign
of Pharaoh Ramesses II of the 19th
dynasty in the 13th century BC. The
exterior part of the temple has four
humungous 20-meter statues of
Ramesses crowned and seated on a
throne. The interiors of the temples
have various colossal statues lined up
and decreasing in size with the rooms
from the entrance to the sanctuary. A few carvings of baboons and people
worshipping can also be found around the entrance to the temple. The temple is
said to be have been dedicated by the king to himself and his queen Nefertari. One
of the four statues of Pharaoh Ramesses II has been damaged by natural erosion
and weather conditions over the years.
5. Luxor Temple: Situated
near the river Nile, the Luxor
Temple is a large temple
complex. The temple was built
around 1400 BC and was
dedicated to the god Amun
and for the “rejuvenation of
kingship” as many of the
Egyptian kings were crowned
there. The temple was built
from sandstone and was supposedly constructed under the kingship of various
rulers throughout the years. The Luxor Temple is widely known for its large statues
of Pharaoh Ramesses and other giant obelisks. Initially, there were two obelisks
made out of graphite of the same height and shape, though currently only one is
present at the Luxor temple; the other is in Paris and is called the Luxor Obelisk.

6. Temple of Hatshepsut: The
Temple of Hatshepsut, also
known as Djeser-Djeseru, is
situated in Deir el-Bahari on
the banks of the river Nile. The
temple was built around 1400
BC, under the reign of Pharaoh
Maatkare Hatshepsut and is
dedicated to Amun and
Hatshepsut. This is a mortuary
temple, a temple dedicated to
the reigning pharaoh and to
also honor him in the afterlife.
The
Temple of Hatshepsut is one of a kind as it was built by a female pharaoh as can be
seen from sculptures present inside the temple. This example of Egyptian
architecture is unconventional in its construction and representation of the
pharaohs.
7. Pyramid of Djoser :The Pyramid of Djoser is a step pyramid made of large
blocks of limestone in the Saqqara
necropolis of Egypt. It is the tomb of
Pharaoh Djoser and was constructed by
his chancellor Imhotep in the 27th century
BC. It has a height of 62.5 meters and is
built in a way that is not exactly a grave
for the king but to facilitate his successful
afterlife in order for him to be reborn.
Inside the pyramid there are long, tunneled chambers spreading a total length of six
kilometers. The tomb was not just for the pharaohs, it also was a place to bury
members of the royal family. The burial chambers are made up of granite and were
once filled with precious jewels which have long since been looted.

References:
http://www.legendsandchronicles.com/ancient-civilizations/ancient-egypt/ancient-egyptian-pyramids/
http://bibliotecapleyades.lege.net/piramides/esp_piramide_12.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_pyramid_construction_techniques
https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/ancient-egypt#section_3
https://www.ancient.eu/Great_Pyramid_of_Giza/
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Top 10 Most Iconic Pieces of Architecture in Ancient Egypt


https://www.britannica.com/art/Egyptian-art/Relief-sculpture-and-painting

mm

Ruqaya Amer

Project Foundation

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